The original Greek of the following translation is available in Hugo Laemmer’s Scriptorum Graeciae Orthodoxae Bibliotheca Selecta, tomus primus (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1866), pp. 517-539. The translations from St. Cyril’s Commentary on John have all been taken, with some minor alterations, from the nineteenth-century translation by Philip Pusey, which Roger Pearse scanned and made available on-line.

Epigraph V

Because there are people who fight against those who say, like the theologians among the saints, that the Holy Spirit is from the Father through the Son, and from the Father and the Son — these people should know that it was upon the Savior’s own statements that these saints based their teaching. For instance, when these saints taught that the Spirit exists from the Father, it was because the Savior says of him in the gospels, “who proceedeth from the Father” (John 15:26). Again, when they taught that the Spirit exists through the Son and from the Son, it was because the Savior, Christ himself, at one time calls him “the Spirit of Truth” (John 14:17; 15:26; 16:13), because, at another time, he breathes him upon his disciples in a bodily manner (John 20:22), because, at another time, he tells these same disciples that “he will receive of mine and will declare it unto you” (John 16:14), and because he says to the Father, “all that are mine are thine, and thine are mine” (John 17:10). Again, they taught this because it is not the case that the Father gives the Spirit with one giving while the Son gives the Spirit with a different giving; but the Spirit is bestowed from the Father through the Son with one single giving and bestowal. Again, they taught this because [518] the Son is a sharer in all the Father’s natural good things; and, again, because the Spirit is bestowed upon us by the Son, not in a ministerial and subservient way, but naturally and in a manner befitting his divine power and authority. — Since, then, this is the case, the following passages have been collected from St. Cyril’s commentary on John the Evangelist, so that whoever examines them may recognize and understand that it was upon the basis of gospel texts such as these that theologians made the claim that the Holy Spirit is from the Father through the Son and from the Father and the Son.

St. Cyril in his exposition of the Gospel according to John, on the statement, “And I will pray the Father, and he shall give you another Comforter” (John 14:16), says:

“So Jesus calls the Spirit another Paraclete, willing Him to be conceived of as possessing the attributes of a proper personality; albeit having so close a likeness to Himself, and able so to work in exact correspondence what things soever He Himself might haply work, as that He might seem to be the Son Himself and no whit different: for He is His Spirit. And indeed Jesus called Him the Spirit of Truth, saying also in the discourse before us that He is Himself the Truth.

“But any one will naturally say to those who suppose the Son alien to the essence of God the Father: [519] ‘How is it, pray, that the Father gives the Spirit of Truth, that is, of the Son, not as foreign or alien, but as His own Spirit; even though, according to you, His type of essence is distinct from the Son’s, and (for about this there is no question) the Spirit is the Son’s? And once more, how is it, if it be so that the Son is of another essence, that He gives the Spirit of the Father as His own?’ For it is written that He breathed on His disciples, saying, Receive ye the Holy Ghost. So then will not a man suppose, and very rightly, or rather will he not be even firmly convinced, that the Son, being essentially partaker of the natural excellences of God the Father, has the Spirit after the same manner as the Father also would be understood to have Him: that is, not as something added or from without, for it were simple or rather mad to hold such an opinion; but as each of us has within himself his own breath, and pours it forth without from the inmost parts of his body? For indeed it was for this cause that Christ breathed on them even bodily, showing that as the breath proceeds bodily from the human mouth, so also from the Divine essence the [Spirit] from Him is in a God-befitting manner poured forth. [520] Forasmuch then as He is the Spirit both of God the Father and of the Son, how can it be but that the power They thus possess at once in division and in conjunction will be altogether one? For the Father is a Father and not a Son, and the Son is a Son and not a Father; notwithstanding, the Father is in the Son, and the Son in the Father; moreover, it is not the Father separately by Himself, or the Son separately by Himself, Who gives the Paraclete or the Holy Spirit, but rather He is supplied to the saints from the Father through the Son. For indeed on this account [we must understand that] when the Father is said to give, the Son also gives, through Whom are all things; and that when the Son is said to give, the Father also gives, of Whom are all things.

“But that the Spirit is both Divine and not of another essence, in reference I mean to the Father and the Son, is I imagine doubtful to no one who is right-minded; and furthermore a necessary argument will convince us of this. For if anyone should say that the Spirit is not of the essence of God, how then henceforward would the creature in receiving the Spirit be a partaker of God? And after what manner shall we be entitled temples of God, and be so, if we receive a created or an alien spirit, and not rather That Which is of God? And how are those who have a share of the Spirit partakers of the Divine nature, according to the words of the sacred writers, if He is in the number of the things that are made, and does not [521] rather proceed for us from the Divine nature itself; not passing through it unto us, as something foreign to it, but so to speak becoming in us a certain quality of the Godhead, and dwelling in the saints, and remaining for ever—[as He does] if by cleansing the eye of their understanding by all goodness, and by unyielding earnestness in the pursuit of every virtue, they preserve the grace in their hearts.”
5:1 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, In Joannis evangelium, lib. 9; PG 74, 257 B – 260 B.

On the statement, “I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove” (John 1:32), the same father says:

“For we too will not descend to such a lack of reason as to suppose that, by nature, the Spirit was in the Son by participation and not rather essentially inherent in him, even as he is in the Father Himself. For as of the Father, so also of the Son, is the Holy Ghost.”
5:2 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, In Joannis evangelium, lib. 2, cap. 1; PG 73, 208 C.

And a little further on in the passage:

“But how can the Word be thought of at all apart from Its Own Spirit? For would it not be absurd to say, that the spirit of man, which is in him, according to the definition of nature, and for the completeness of the living-being, was separated from him? But I suppose that this is most evident to all. How then shall we sever from the Son the Spirit, Which is so innate and so essentially united with Him, [522] and so moves forward through Him and exists in Him by Nature, that It cannot be thought to be anything other than He?”
5:3 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, In Joannis evangelium, lib. 2, cap. 1; PG 73, 209 C-D.

And a little after this:

“Invariable is the likeness of the Son with the Spirit, Which is His Own and is shed forth from Him by Nature.”
5:4 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, In Joannis evangelium, lib. 2, cap. 1; PG 73, 212 B.

In the fifth book of his Dialogues with Hermias, the same father says:

“If then he is said to be the ‘express image of the person’ of the Father (Heb 1:3), understand that he coexists with him indivisibly and inextricably, and, so to speak, as the form of him that begot him; but when he is called all but a radiant beam of light emanating and flashing, have in mind a passage from the Father as if towards the outside, occurring neither in such a way that he is separated from that hypostasis from whom he is, nor again in such a way that he should ever be contracted into him, but a movement forward and outward, as it were, into subsistence on his own, and into his own proper existence.”
5:5 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, De SS. Trinitate dialogus v; PG 75, 932 C-D.

On the statement, “As thou hast sent me into the world, even so have I also sent them into the world” (John 17:18), the same father says:

“The Spirit belongs properly to God the Father, and nonetheless belongs also properly to the Son Himself, not as being this here and that there, or as though He were known or existed in Either in a divided way; but, inasmuch as the Son by Nature proceeds from the Father and is in Him [523] (being the true Offspring of His Essence), the Spirit—Which is the Father’s by Nature—is brought down to men; shed forth indeed from the Father, but through the Son Himself conveyed to the creature; not merely ministerially or in the manner of a servant, but, as I said just now, proceeding from the Substance Itself of God the Father; and shed forth on those worthy to receive Him through the Word, Which is Consubstantial with and proceeded from Him, and so proceeded as to have a self-dependent being, and ever abideth in Him, at the same time in unity, and also, as it were, with an individual existence. For we maintain that the Son has an independent existence, but still inheres in His Father, and has in Himself Him that begat Him; and that the Spirit of the Father is indeed the Spirit of the Son; and that, when the Father sends or promises to distribute the Spirit to the Saints, the Son also vouchsafes the Spirit to them as His own, because of His identity in Substance with the Father.”
5:6 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, In Joannis evangelium, lib. 11, cap. 10; PG 74, 540 C – 541 A.

On the statement, “And John bare record, saying, ‘I saw the Spirit descending from heaven like a dove’” (John 1:32), the same father says:

“But perchance the heretic fond of carping will jump up, and with a big laugh, say; What again, sirs, [524] say ye to this too, or what argument will ye bring forth, wresting that which is written? Lo, he saith that the Spirit descendeth upon the Son; lo, He is anointed by God the Father; That Which He hath not, He receives forsooth, the Psalmist co-witnessing with us and saying, as to Him: Wherefore God, Thy God, hath anointed Thee with the oil of gladness above Thy fellows. How then will the Son any more be Consubstantial with the Perfect Father, not being Himself Perfect, and therefore anointed? To this then I think it right to say to those who overturn the holy doctrines of the Church, and pervert the truth of the Scriptures: Awake, ye drunkards, from your wine, that viewing the clear beauty of the truth, ye may be able with us to cry to the Son: Of a truth Thou art the Son of God. For if thou fully believe that He is by Nature God, how will He not have perfection? For time is it that ye now speak impiously against the Father Himself also: for whence must He needs, as thou sayest, have perfection? how will He not be brought down to the abasement of His Offspring, which according to you is imperfect, in that the Divine Essence in the Son has once received the power of not having Perfec- [525] tion, according to your unlearned and uninstructed reasoning? For we will not divide that Great and Untainted Nature into different Words, so that it should be imperfect perchance in one, and again Perfect in the other. Since the definition of human nature too is one in respect of all men, and equal in all of us, what man will be less, qua man? but neither will he be considered more so than another. And I suppose that one angel will differ in nothing from another angel in respect of their being what they are, angels to wit, from sameness of nature, being all linked with one another unto one nature. How then can the Nature Which is Divine and surpassing all, show Itself in a state inferior to things originate in Its own special good, and endure a condition which the creature cannot endure? How will It be at all simple and uncompounded, if Perfection and imperfection appear in It? For It will be compounded of both, since Perfection is not of the same kind as imperfection. For if they be of the same kind, and there be no difference between them, every thing which is perfect will without distinction be also imperfect: and if ought again be imperfect, this too will be perfect. And the charge against the Son will be nought, even though according to your surmisings [526] He appear not Perfect: but neither will the Father Himself, though witnessed to in respect of His Perfection, surpass the Son, and there is an end of our dispute. But if much interval severs imperfection from perfection, and the Divine Nature admits both together, It is compound, and not simple.

“But perchance some one will say, that contraries are incompatible, and not co-existent in one subject at the same time, as for instance in a body white and black skin together. Well, my friend, and very bravely hast thou backed up my argument. For if the Divine Nature be One, and there be none other than It, how, tell me, will It admit of contraries? How will things unlike to one another come together into one subject? But since the Father is by Nature God, the Son too is by Nature God. He will therefore in nothing differ, in respect of being Perfect, from the Father, since He is begotten of His Divine and most Perfect Essence. For must not He needs be Perfect Who is of a Perfect Parent, since He is both His exact Likeness, and the express Image of His Person, as it is written? But every one will I suppose consent and agree to this. Or let him come forward and say, [527] how the Son is the exact Image of the Perfect Father, not having Perfection in His Own Nature, according to the uncounsel of some. For since He is the Impress and Image, He is Himself also just as perfect as He Whose Image He is.

“But, says one, John saw the Spirit descending from Heaven upon the Son, and He has Sanctification from without, for He receives it as not having it. Time then is it to call Him openly a creature, barely honoured with a little excellence, perfected and sanctified in equal rank with the rest, and having His supply of good things an acquired one. Then how does the Evangelist not lie, when he says, Of His fulness have all we received? For how will He be full in His Own Nature, Who Himself receiveth from Another? Or how will God be at all conceived of as Father if the Only-Begotten is a creature, and not rather Son? For if this be so, both Himself will be falsely called Father, and the Son will not be Truth, having upon Him a spurious dignity, and a title of bare words.”
5:7 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, In Joannis evangelium, lib. 2, cap. 1; PG 73, 196 B – 197 D.

In his exposition of the text, “But when the Comforter is come” (John 15:26), the same father says:

“For observe, when calling the Comforter ‘the Spirit of truth,’ [528] that is, His own, He says that He comes from the Father. For as the Spirit naturally belongs to the Son, being in Him and emanating through Him, so also He belongs to the Father. But the qualities of Their Substance cannot be distinct, where the Spirit is common to both. Let not then any of those who are accustomed impiously to employ the language of folly lead us to the perverted opinion that the Son, executing as it were a kind of ministerial service, vouchsafes the Spirit that is received from the Father to the creature. For some have not scrupled perversely to say this. But it is more consistent to believe that since the Spirit belongs to Him, as He also certainly belongs to God the Father, He sends Him to His holy disciples to sanctify them. For if they think that in making the Son in this also a minister and servant to us, they form and utter a shrewd conception, surely it follows that we say to them: Ye fools and blind; do you not perceive that you are going back, and diminishing the glory of the Only-begotten, when you string together miserable sophistries from the ignorance that is in you? For if the Son ministers the Spirit from the Father, being ranked as a servant, surely it is [529] necessary to admit that the Spirit is utterly different in Essence from Him, and perhaps His superior and far above Him, if the case be as you in your ignorance suppose. For if the Son does not proceed from the Father, that is, from His Essence, as you think, surely the Spirit when compared with the Son would be regarded as superior to Him. What then shall we say, when we hear Christ himself saying of the Spirit: He shall glorify Me; for He shall take of Mine and shall declare it unto you?

“Now, besides what has been mentioned, this also will necessarily follow. For if you consider that the Son performs a ministerial service, providing us with That which is of another Nature, that is, the Spirit proceeding from God the Father Which is naturally holy, the Son is not by Nature holy, but only by participation, as we are. For by the ignorance of the impious He is declared to be different in Substance from the Father, from Whom also the Spirit provided unto us by Him proceeds. It will then be possible, since the Spirit does not belong to the Son, but He Himself is sanctified by adoption, as is the case with the creature, that He may fall away from the holiness that is in Him. For that which has been acquired as an addition might surely be removed, at the pleasure of Him Who has bestowed it. Who then [530] will not flee away from such doctrines as these? I think, however, that our statement is more conformable to the truth.

“The truth then is dear to us, as are the dogmas, expressing the truth; and we will not follow those heretics, but, pursuing the faith handed down by the holy fathers, we declare that the Comforter, that is, the Holy Spirit, belongs to the Son, and is not introduced from outside nor acquired in His case, as He is in that of those who receive sanctification, in whom though not originally innate He is implanted; but that the Son is of one Substance with the Spirit, as also He is with the Father. For if we take this view, the power of the doctrines of the Church will not be reduced in our case to a polytheistic mythology, but the Holy Trinity is united in the doctrine of a Single Divinity. Showing then that there is a Unity of Substance, I mean that of Himself and God the Father, in the same Being, in saying that the Comforter is the Spirit of truth He declares that He proceeds from the Father, and makes plain and beyond contradiction that the opposer of Christ is wholly at enmity with God. For he who in any degree allows himself to contemn the Son may be reasonably considered to transgress against Him from Whom He proceeds.

“When then, He says, the Comforter, the Spirit of truth, that is [531] My Spirit, Which proceeds from the Father, is come, He will testify of Me. And how will He testify? By working marvels in you, and by you He will be a just and true witness of My Godlike authority, and of the greatness of My power. For He that works in you is My Spirit, and as He is My Spirit, so also is He That of God the Father.”
5:8 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, In Joannis evangelium, lib. 10; PG 74, 417 C – 421 A.

On the text, “Howbeit when he, the Comforter, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth: for he shall not speak of himself” (John 16:13), the same father says:

“See how free from extravagance the expression is: note the soberness of the phrase. For having told them that the Comforter would come unto them, He called Him the Spirit of Truth, that is, His own Spirit. For He is the Truth. For that His disciples might know that He does not promise them the visitation of a foreign and strange power, but rather that He will vouchsafe unto them His Presence in another form, He calls the Comforter the Spirit of Truth, that is, His own Spirit. For the Holy Spirit is not in truth alien from the Substance of the Only-begotten, but proceeds naturally from it, having no separate existence from Him so far as identity of nature is concerned, even though He may be in some sort conceived of as having a separate existence. The [532] Spirit of Truth then, He says, will lead you to complete knowledge of the truth. For as having perfect knowledge of the truth, of which He is also the Spirit, He will make no partial revelation of it to those who worship Him, but will rather engraft in their hearts the mystery concerning it in its entirety. For even if now we know in part, as Paul says, still, though our knowledge be limited, the fair vision of the truth has gleamed upon us entire and undefiled. As then no man knoweth the things of a man, according to the Scripture, save the spirit of the man which is in him, in the same way, I think, to use the words of Paul, none knoweth the things of God save the Spirit of God which is in Him.

“When then He cometh, He says, He shall not speak from Himself (He does not say, He will make you wise, and will reveal to you the mystery of the truth); He will tell you nothing that is not in accord with My teaching, nor will He expound to you any strange doctrine, for He will not introduce laws peculiar to Himself; but since He is My Spirit, and as it were My Mind, He will surely speak to you of the things concerning Me. And this the Saviour saith, not that we should suppose that the Holy Spirit has merely ministerial functions, as some ignorantly maintain, but rather from [533] a wish to satisfy the disciples that His Spirit, not being separate from Him so far as identity of Substance is concerned, will surely speak the things concerning Him, and will work and purpose the same.

“And for this reason He added the words, and He will show you things to come; and it is almost as though He said these very words, ‘This will be a sign unto you that the Spirit is in very truth of My Substance and as it were My Mind—His telling you things to come, as I have done. For I foretold, even though you have not been able to take everything to heart. He would not then foretell things to come, as I have done, if He did not indeed exist in Me and emanate through Me.’”
5:9 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, In Joannis evangelium, lib. 10; PG 74, 444 A-D. (End of Book X.)

The same father in book four chapter 18 of his Commentary on John, on the words, “As the living Father sent me, and I live on account of the Father,” says:

“For as light is said to be from light, thus also life is from life; and just as the God and Father enlightens those things that are in need of illumination through his own light, the Son, and makes wise those things that receive wisdom, as through his own wisdom, and empowers things lacking power, through, again, his own proper power, so also he gives life to whatsoever things are in need of life through his own proper life, which is also shed forth from him, that is to say, through the Son.”
5:10 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, In Joannis evangelium, lib. 4, cap. 3; PG 73, 593 B-C.

On the text, “He shall glorify me: for he shall receive of mine” (John 16:14), the same father says:

“The Comforter then, that is, His own Spirit, being omnipotent and omniscient, glorifies the Son. And how does He glorify Him? Surely what His Spirit knows and is able to effect, Christ knows and is able to effect. And if, as He says, the Spirit receives of Him, the Spirit Himself being omnipotent, surely He Himself has a power which is universal. And we must in no wise suppose that the Comforter, that is, the Spirit, is lacking in innate and inherent power [534] in such a way that, if He did not receive assistance from without, His own power would not be self-sufficient to fully accomplish the Divine designs. Any one who merely imagined any such idea to be true about the Spirit would with good reason undergo the charge of the worst blasphemy of all. But it is because He is Consubstantial with the Son, and divinely emanates through Him, exercising universally His entire activity and power, that Christ says, ‘He shall receive of Me.’ For we believe that the Spirit has a self-supporting existence and is in truth that which He is, and with the qualities predicated of Him; though, being inherent in the Substance of God, He moves forward and issues from it and has innate in Himself all that that nature implies. For the Divine Substance is not His by participation or by relation, still less is It His as though He had a separate existence from It, since He is proper to It. For just as the fragrance of sweet-smelling flowers, deriving in some sort from the essential and natural exercise of the functions or qualities of the flowers that emit it, conveys the perception thereof to the outer world by meeting those organs of smell in the body, and yet seems in some way, so far as its logical conception goes, [535] to be separate from its natural cause, while (as having no independent existence) it is not separate in nature from those things from which and in which it exists, even so you may conceive of the relation of God and the Holy Spirit, taking this by way of illustration. In this way then the statement that His Spirit receives something from the Only-begotten is wholly unimpeachable and cannot be cavilled at. For emanating naturally through Him, as what is properly His own, and having all that He has in its entirety, He is said to receive that which He has.”
5:11 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, In Joannis evangelium, lib. 11, cap. 1; PG 74, 449 A-C.

On the text, “All things that the Father hath are mine: therefore said I, that he receives of mine and shall shew it unto you” (John 16:15), the same father says:

“The Son once more shows to us herein the complete and perfect character of the Person of the Father Himself also, and allows us to see why He said that He, being the fruit of the Father’s Substance, engrosses in Himself all that belongs to It, and says that It is all His own, and with reason. For, as there is nothing to dissever or estrange the Son from the Father, so far as their complete similarity and equality is concerned, save only that He is not Himself the Father, and as the Divine Substance does not show Itself differently in the Two Persons, surely Their attributes are common, or rather [536] identical; so that what the Father hath is the Son’s, and what He That begat hath, belongs also to Him that is begotten of Him. For this reason, I think, in His watchful care over us, He has thus spoken to us concerning this. For He did not say, All things whatsoever the Father hath I have also, in order to prevent our imagining He meant a mere likeness founded on similarity, only moulded by adventitious graces into conformity with the Archetype, as is the case with us; for we are after God’s likeness. Rather, when He says, All things whatsoever the Father hath are Mine, He illustrates hereby the perfect union which He hath with His Father, and the meaning of their Consubstantiality existing in unchangeable attributes. And this you may see, that He clearly says elsewhere, when addressing the Father, All things that are Mine are Thine, and Thine are Mine. For surely they are identical in nature, in whom there is no severance at all, but complete and perfect essential equality and likeness. God the Father then hath, of Himself, and in Himself, His own Spirit; that is, the Holy Spirit, through Whom He dwelleth in the Saints, and reveals His mysteries to them; not as though the Spirit were called to perform a merely ministerial function (do not think this), [537] but rather, as He is in Him essentially, and emanates from Him inseparably and indivisibly, interpreting what is in reality His own when He interprets that which belongs to Him in Whom He exists, and from Whom He springs. For God has contact with the creation in no other way than through His Son in the Spirit. And this Spirit is also an attribute of the Only-begotten, for He is Consubstantial with the Father.

“Since then, He says, it is seen to be natural to God the Father to reveal Himself in His own Spirit to those who are worthy of Him, and to accomplish through Him all His purposes, and since this kind of action belongs to Me also, for this cause I said, ‘He receiveth of Me and will show it unto you.’ And let no man be perplexed when he here hears the word ‘receiveth,’ but rather let him consider the following fact, and he will do well. The things of God are spoken of in language as though God were even as we are; but this is not really the case, for His ways are superhuman. We say then that the Spirit receives of the Father and the Son the things that are Theirs in the following way; not as though at one moment He were devoid of the knowledge and power inherent in Them, and at the next hardly acquires such knowledge and power when He is conceived of as receiving from Them. For the Spirit is wise and powerful, nay, rather, absolute Wisdom and Power, not by participation in anything else, but by His own Nature. But, rather, just as we should say that the fragrance of sweet-smelling herbs which assails our [538] nostrils is distinct from the herbs so far as their conception in thought is concerned, but proceeds from the herbs in which it originates only by being a recipient of their faculty of giving scent in order to its display, and is not in fact distinct from them, because its existence is due to, and is wrapped up in, them; even such an idea, or rather one transcending this, must you imagine about the relation of God to the Holy Spirit. For He is, as it were, a sweet savour of His Substance, working plainly on the senses, conveying to the creature an effluence from God, and instilling in him through Itself participation in the Sovereign Substance of the Universe. For if the fragrance of sweet herbs imparts some of its power to garments with which it comes in contact, and in some sort transforms its surroundings into likeness with itself, surely the Holy Ghost has power, since He is by nature of God, to make those in whom He abides partakers in the Divine Nature through Himself. The Son then, being the Fruit and express Image of the Father’s Person by nature, engrosses all that is His. And therefore He says, All things whatsoever the Father hath are Mine: therefore said I unto you, that He taketh of Mine and shall declare it unto you—the Spirit, that is, Who is through Him and in Him, by Whom He personally dwells in the Saints. [539] For His Spirit is not distinct from Him, even though He may be conceived of as having a separate and independent existence: for the Spirit is Spirit, and not a Son.”
5:12 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, In Joannis evangelium, lib. 11, cap. 2; PG 74, 449 D – 453 B.

Theodore the presbyter of Raïthu in his dogmatic address which begins, “I think it absurd, and I think so with good reason,” quite a long way after this says:

“But we should not be surprised if the Lord describes his coming-forth of both as an exiting from the Father. For he says, ‘I came forth and have come from the Father’ (John 8:42). And again: ‘the Spirit which proceedeth from the Father’ (John 15:26). For even if both ‘coming forth’ and ‘proceeding’ here indicate the same thing, nevertheless he applied the term ‘procession’ in a special way to the Spirit, as to himself he applied the term ‘generation.’”
5:13 ❖ [Not found]

In the acts of the first Council of Nicaea, in which the bishops are speaking to the philosopher through the bishop Leontius, this is what is said:

“The Scripture therefore says concerning the Son of God: ‘He shall incline towards them like a river of peace proceeding’ (cf. LXX Isa 66:12), that is to say, from the genuine fountain of life, the Father’s Godhead, as the Lord says in the gospels, ‘I came forth and have come from the Father’ (John 8:42).”
5:14 ❖ [Not found]


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