The original Greek of the following translation is available in Hugo Laemmer’s Scriptorum Graeciae Orthodoxae Bibliotheca Selecta, tomus primus (Freiburg-im-Breisgau, 1866), pp. 548-556.


Epigraph VII

Because some people claim that the expressions “to emanate,” “to be shed forth,” and “to proceed” differ from each other in meaning, in order to demonstrate their equivalence in meaning the following extracts from St. Cyril have been selected, and, after them, further selections are appended from other fathers who taught that the Spirit “emanates” and “is sent forth” and “is shed forth,” and who taught this in those very passages where they were about to say that he “proceeds from the Father.”

[549] St. Cyril in the sixth book of his Dialogues with Hermias says:

“If therefore the Spirit of the Father is proper to the Son, how is the Son not to know any of the things hidden in God, since he himself possesses the Spirit who knows all things that are in the Father? And in fact I clearly hear him saying to the holy apostles, ‘I have yet many things to say unto you, but ye cannot bear them now. Howbeit when he, the Spirit of truth, is come, he will guide you into all truth. For he shall not speak of himself; but whatsoever he shall hear, that shall he speak: and he will show you things to come’ (John 16:12-13). Is the passage here adduced, then, clear to you, and have you taken due note that he called the Paraclete the ‘Spirit of truth’? And in fact he said that he emanates from the Father, making it clear that all things that belong to the Father are his very own.”
7:1 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, De SS. Trinitate dialogus vi; PG 75, 1072 A-B.

[550] The same father, in book six of his Dialogues with Hermias:

“He will teach you by his own words that the Spirit of the Father is Spirit of the Son when he says, ‘When the Comforter is come, whom I will send unto you from the Father, even the Spirit of truth, which proceedeth from the Father, he shall testify of me’ (John 15:26). Do you understand, then, that he is promising that he will send down to us that which is from the Father, as that which is his very own? And he calls him ‘the Spirit of truth,’ and declared that he is shed forth from the Father himself, and has announced beforehand that he shall bear witness concerning him.”
7:2 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, De SS. Trinitate dialogus vi; PG 75, 1012 C-D.

The same father in his address to monks, which begins, “The character of your Charity as a lover of learning and of works [551] deserves, I think, every praise,” a long way after this says:

“The Spirit is shed forth, or rather, proceeds from God the Father as from a fountain, and is supplied to the creation through the Son.”
7:3 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, Epistola 55 (De symbolo); PG 77, 316 D.

St. Athanasius, in the debate he conducts between an Orthodox and a Macedonian, says:

“God forbid that I should say that anything the Spirit possesses is an acquisition; for neither holiness, nor incorruptibility, nor immortality, nor goodness, nor any other of the things contemplated in God, I maintain, are acquired in the case of the Holy Spirit, but the Spirit is holy by nature, incorruptible by nature, as Spirit of God and he who fountains, or proceeds, from him.”
7:4 ❖ [Not yet found]

St. Cyril, in one of the chapters of book two of his Thesaurus, says:

“It is not thus, most fine sirs; we do not say that all things are from God in the way the Spirit is. For he exists in him naturally [552] and is essentially infixed, so we may say, and indivisibly emanates from him; whereas they are works and creations of his activity.”
7:5 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, Thesaurus 33; PG 75, 565 C.

Again, elsewhere:

“He is not divorced from the divine substance, but, being sent forth from it naturally, he possesses all the activity of the Father and the Son.”
7:6 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, Thesaurus 34; PG 75, 581 B.

Again, elsewhere:

“But ‘from whom’ will remain especially for him, because of his being from the substance of the Father.”
7:7 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, Thesaurus 33; PG 75, 569 A.

Again, elsewhere:

“It is manifest that he is of the divine substance, substantially emanating in it and from it.”
7:8 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, Thesaurus 34; PG 75, 585 A. Cf. De unione 16 (L 254 f.).

Again, elsewhere:

“Since therefore the Holy Spirit, having come to be in us, shows us sharers in the form of God, and he emanates from the Father and the Son, it is evident that he is of the divine substance, substantially emanating in it and from it.”
7:9 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, Thesaurus 34; PG 75, 585 A.

The same father, in his address to Nestorius, says:

“For even if the Spirit is in a specific hypostasis, according as he is Spirit [553] and not a Son, nevertheless he is not foreign to him. But he is poured out from him, just as, indeed, he is poured out also from God the Father.”
7:10 ❖ Cyril of Alexandria, Epistola xvii (ad Nestorium); PG 77, 117 C.

Basil the Great, in one of the chapters of his fourth discourse Against Eunomius, says:

“For we shall not be in possession of something of no significance for knowing that the Spirit exists from God, when we hear him called ‘the breath of his mouth’ (Ps 33:6), but this name also suffices for showing his existence from God. Neither Son nor begetting is a property of Godhead, but it has been taken from human resemblance, and similarly, too, with the appellation of the Spirit.”
7:11 Ps.-Basil of Caesarea, Adv. Eunomium V; PG 29, 733 C – 736 A.

The same father, in the same discourse, says:

“Whoever divides the Spirit from the Godhead has cut off that which perfects what is made. For the things that come to be come to be by a sending out and bestowal of the Spirit; he who emanates from God does not emanate in time, even if, in time, he produces the creatures.”
7:12 ❖ Ps.-Basil of Caesarea, Adv. Eunomium V; PG 29, 736 D – 737 A.

[554] Maximus the Great, in the debate he has written between an Anomoean (or Arian) and an Orthodox, says by way of questioning, as though from the Anomoean:

Anomoean: “Are there no differences, then, between the Father and the Son and the Holy Spirit?”
Orthodox: “In their nature, no; in their will, no; in begetting and being begotten and sending out and proceeding, yes.”
Anomoean: “What is ‘begetting’ and ‘being begotten,’ and ‘sending out’ and ‘proceeding’?”
Orthodox: “In that the Father begets, that is ‘begetting.’ The Son is begotten; that is ‘he has been begotten.’ And in that the Father himself sends out the Spirit, that is ‘he sent out.’ And the Spirit proceeds; that is ‘he has proceeded.’”
7:13 ❖ [Not yet found]

[555] Basil the Great, in the 18th of his chapters To Amphilochius, after presenting the communion of the Spirit with the Father and the Son in other terms, says these these things:

“And here there is a demonstration not only of his communion according to nature, but that he is said, also, to be from God, not in the way all things are from God, but as one coming forth from God, not in a begotten way like the Son, but as the ‘breath of his mouth’ (Ps 33:6), such that, on the one hand, their intimacy is shown, and, on the other hand, the ineffable manner of existence is preserved.”
7:14 ❖ Basil of Caesarea, De Spiritu sancto, 18.46; PG 32, 152 A-B.

Gregory the Theologian, in his Oration in Praise of Heron the Philosopher, says:

“And define, also, our true religion, teaching [556] them to know one unbegotten God, the Father, and one begotten, the Son, and one Holy Spirit, coming forth, or emanating, from the Father.”
7:15 ❖ Gregory of Nazianzus, or. 25.15; PG 35, 1220 B.

Theodore the presbyter of Raïthu in his dogmatic address that begins, “I think it absurd, and I think so with good reason,” quite a ways after this says:

“But we should not be surprised if the Lord describes his coming-forth of both as an exiting from the Father. For he says, ‘I came forth and arrived from the Father’ (John 8:42). And again: ‘the Spirit which proceedeth from the Father’ (John 15:26). For even if both ‘coming forth’ and ‘proceeding’ here indicate the same thing, nevertheless he applied the term ‘procession’ in a special way to the Spirit, as to himself he applied the term ‘generation.’”
7:16 ❖ Anastasius of Antioch, De SS. Trinitate 11; PG 89, 1316 A-B.

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